Horizontal transmission of chicken disease includes contact with diseased chickens, contaminated grass bedding, airborne dust with pathogens and feeds contacted by pathogens, drinking water, wild bird insects with pathogens, and mutual transmission with chicken houses or neighboring chicken houses. Therefore, disinfection of chicken farms is very important, especially modern intensive farming. Good disinfection work can measure the success or failure of a farm. The disinfection of chicken farms, whether biological, chemical, or physical, must be preceded by reasonable disinfection systems, disinfection records, and regular disinfection. There must be someone responsible for the selection and storage of disinfecting drugs. The work must be planned, purposeful, and step-by-step to disinfect different disinfecting objects.
1 Chicken farm disinfection method
1.1 Physical Methods
(1) Clean up debris and other attached organic matter, dust, and remaining feathers to facilitate cleaning.
(2) The cleaning method is to reduce or eliminate the pathogenic microorganisms in chicken coops or equipment and to remove the contaminated organic matter by flushing high-pressure guns on the premises and equipment of the chicken house to ensure thorough disinfection and achieve the purpose of disinfection. The contents of the cleaning include cleaning the ground, supplies (including drinking fountains, food troughs), cleaning lighting facilities, egg cartons, and other ancillary facilities.
(3) The use of daylight and UV light irradiation, in a somewhat more confined space with UV light irradiation will have a better bactericidal effect. UV irradiation area and time. The direct sun light can kill viruses or spore pathogens within a few minutes to several hours. Therefore, sunlight irradiation is very important for the disinfection of sports fields, utensils and articles of birds.
(4) The use of high-temperature sterilization, the device can be used to sterilize the high temperature or housing or site mat grass, trash can be treated with incineration, such as burning torch.
1.2 Chemical methods
It is during the process of epidemic disease control that the disinfection and preparations of chemical drugs are used to clean chicken farms and objects, soaked, sprayed and fumigated to achieve the purpose of killing pathogens.
(1) Requirements for the selection of disinfecting drugs: Selection of strong disinfecting power, long duration, extensive disinfection, strong penetrability, water-soluble, stable in nature, harmless to humans and chickens, economical .
(2) To ensure the use of disinfectants, the following points should be taken: Remove the dirt; the concentration of the disinfectant should be appropriate; different pathogenic microorganisms should use different disinfectants; choose the appropriate disinfection time and temperature and environmental humidity; disinfectant The pH.
1.3 Biological disinfection method
The biological sterilization method is mainly through the accumulation fermentation or biogas fermentation treatment of feces, sewage, bedding, etc., so that the pathogenic bacteria are killed at high temperatures to achieve the effect of disinfection and sterilization.
2 The disinfection of chicken farms should be carried out in the following steps
2.1 Sterilization between chicken farms and the outside world
The chicken farm is divided into a production area and a living administrative area to avoid the influence of people in the production area on chickens. The disinfection that is often done is the disinfection of the vehicle and the disinfection of the feet passed by the staff. This is the first line of defense against the introduction of pathogens into chicken houses.
Vehicle disinfection pool: 2% caustic soda water available. The disinfection tank should be of sufficient length, generally exceeding the perimeter of a car wheel so that all incoming vehicles can pass. The requirements for disinfection tanks are generally 4m long, 2m wide, and 5cm water depth. The trains carrying chickens should be cleaned after use every day, and then sprayed with 2 to 3% of the children.
People's pedal disinfection pool: It is a disinfecting pool where the staff walks when walking in and out of the production area. 2% caustic soda or quaternary ammonium salts can be used as a disinfectant to be changed once a day. Or extinguish the solution with 0.2% solution and change it every three days. Can also be disinfected with 0.1% potassium permanganate solution. The disinfection tanks passed by personnel are 2m long, 1m wide and 3cm deep. At the same time, a UV lamp should be installed above the disinfection tank to use ultraviolet light to kill pathogens that may be suspended in the air.
Disinfect the roads in the production area and spray once per day with 0.2% sodium hypochlorite solution. The above two kinds of disinfection tanks should pay attention to: Do not have direct sunlight, and organic matter, such as feces, sludge, etc. can reduce the antiviral power of drugs; regular replacement of liquid medicine or to pad. Experiments have shown that, in a manure-containing compound phenol disinfectant pool, the total number of bacteria in the disinfectant after 6 days has reached 8.8 million/ml; in the povidone-iodine disinfection tank, 18 million/ml after 4 days; in the cationic detergent tank, only There are 100 bacteria/ml. Disinfection tanks in chicken farms should have special veterinarians responsible for supervising disinfection and liquid replacement.
2.2 Sterilization by staff
Chicken farm staff is an important carrier of pathogens, so people entering the production area must be strictly sterilized. Workers in the chicken house in the chicken farmyard strictly forbid strands of chicken coops. The staff of each chicken house is responsible for their respective responsible areas to prevent human transmission of diseases.
Workers' uniforms and caps should be cleaned and replaced on a regular basis. The cleaned uniforms can be sun-sterilized or formalined. Workwear must not be worn out of the production area. Sterilization of workers' hands: After washing hands with soap, the staff was immersed in a 1:1000 solution of benzalkonium bromide for 3 to 5 minutes, rinsed with water and wiped dry. Disinfection of foot: Workers should wear water shoes or other special shoes in the production area and enter the production area through a pedal disinfection tank. Disinfection tanks should be set up at the entrances of chicken coops in the production area.
2.3 Disinfection of empty homes
The entire chicken house must adopt the “all-in, all-out” system to facilitate strict disinfection and feeding management. Good disinfection of the empty plots can make each batch of chickens get safer feeding environment conditions and improve the bred rate. The disinfection procedures for the empty chicken house are as follows: Cleaning: After the chickens are all released, chicken excrement, litter, dust on the ceiling, and spider webs are cleaned out of the house. Then infiltrate with water to soften the area to be rinsed for easy flushing.
Rinse: Wash the chicken house, especially the ground, walls, and cages of chicken coops with a high-pressure water gun, especially in some corners or gaps, to flush away the dirt to reduce the number of germs, and also improve the disinfection effect.
Drying: Drying can further reduce the bacteria in the chicken house. At the same time, the leaves ensure that the concentration of the disinfectant is not affected, and can help the penetration of drugs.
Spraying of disinfecting drugs: The ground wall dwarf should be heated with 2% caustic soda or 20% lime milk; for chicken cages and roofs, use 0.1% of anti-virus, 100% poison and other non-corrosive medical drugs. Spray guns or agricultural sprayers for disinfection. The concentration of disinfectant should be based on different drug pairs. When disinfectant is sprayed, it should be disinfected one by one according to a certain direction. Do not leave a corner that cannot be eliminated or where it is missing. Close the doors and windows when disinfecting, pay attention to personnel protection.
Fumigation: Seal all doors and windows closed, making the entire disinfection site airtight. Calculate the amount of formaldehyde and potassium permanganate used according to the size of the space, depending on the degree of pollution in the chicken house increase or decrease. For every 1m3 of space, 18 ml of formalin solution and 9 g of potassium permanganate were used for fumigation. Closed fumigation 24 ~ 48h ventilation, winter fumigation to increase temperature and humidity. After the above program disinfection of the chicken house, the bacteria kill rate can reach 95 to 97%, fully qualified.
2.4 Disinfection of poultry feeding and drinking equipment and utensils
Poultry feeding trough, disinfection of poultry drinking fountains. First, it should be cleaned, dried, and sterilized with a 0.1% benzalkonium disinfectant brush, and then fumigated together with fumigation. Egg cartons. Egg trays. Disinfection of cages Repeated use or sale of returned cages should be better. Can be soaked or scrubbed with 2% caustic soda hot solution.