The cost of feed in chicken production accounts for 60% to 70% of the total cost. In the current situation where feed prices remain high and chickens are thin, reducing feed waste is particularly important for reducing production costs, increasing farm income, and increasing economic efficiency. The article discusses the causes of feed waste in chicken farms and how to save feed.
In the production practice of raising chickens, the cost of feed accounts for 2/3 of the total capital cost, so reducing feed waste is to reduce the cost of farming and increase profits. In the chicken industry, feed waste is particularly serious. Here are the reasons for the waste of chicken farms and their solutions.
1 Causes of feed wastage
(1) Direct waste. The direct waste caused by unscientific feed management in chicken farms generally accounts for 5% to 15% of the annual feed consumption. The structure of the trough is irrational, the height of the trough is not proper, or 2% to 6% of the material is excessively wasted. 0.5% of the fly is consumed because of excessive fine feed, 1% of the pheasants and rats are infringed, 0.5% of the waste is thrown, and no break or break occurs. Improper waste of 3%.
(2) Indirect waste. Indirect waste due to low feed efficiency accounts for 11% to 22% of the total feed. Among them, environmental temperature is too low to waste 4% to 6%, incomplete feathers are wasted by 2% to 6%, intake is excessive and wasted by 3% to 5%, and parasites and diseases cause wastage of 2% to 7%. To save feed and reduce costs in production, we should pay more attention to the indirect waste of feed. Because such waste is not easily found in the short term.
2 Ways to save feed
(1) Choose a good breed of chicken. In addition to the advantages of high production performance, high growth rate, high egg production, large eggs, and strong disease resistance, the excellent breed chickens have higher feed utilization rates. For the same age of chickens, the same feeding environment consumes exactly the same feed, and the production performance of the fine varieties is much higher than that of other breeds of chickens. Under the same feeding conditions, egg production of high-laying laying hens can be increased by 20% to 30% compared to ordinary laying hens. Feeding chickens with high production performance is an effective way to reduce material costs.
(2) Timely interruptions. Chicken gizzards easily hook feed, causing feed wastage. Chicks are generally cut at 6 to 9 days and repaired at 12 to 16 weeks of age. Not only can cutting off effectively reduce feed wastage, but it can also prevent the occurrence of chicken gizzards.
(3) Choose the right feed shape. The feed is divided into three types: powder, granular, and granular. The pellets have good palatability and are easy to eat. The chicken can eat fully and prevent waste. It is especially suitable for feeding broilers. If the feed is raised on the net, raised and raised in cages, the feed does not contain grit and is regularly supplemented regularly. The digestibility of the feed will be reduced by 3% to 10%. Therefore, gravel should be regularly fed, single feed or add 454g per 50kg of feed, can help the chicken stomach mechanically grated feed, make feed easily digested and increased utilization. The powder should be prevented from being too fine, and the fineness is not only poor in palatability, but also easy to fly and cause loss. If the chicken is fed with a wet mix, it should be mixed and fed, otherwise it will be rancid in summer and easy to freeze in winter. When adding green feed to the feed, chop it short to prevent it from being wasted when the chicken picks up on the food.
(4) The trough structure and placement height should be reasonable. Unreasonable feed trough structure and placement heights can waste as much as 15% of the feed, so it is important to select a trough with the right size. The chute should have a bottom, a large belly, and a small mouth. It is advisable to place a height of 2 cm above or above the chicken's back and above the chicken's back so that the chicken can eat the feed without forcing the feed to feed it. Slot outside. If the feeding trough is too small, too shallow or placed too low, the chicken can easily dial the feed out of the trough. If it is too large, too deep or placed too high, it will affect the chicken's feeding and growth. Therefore, the appropriate chute should be selected according to the age of the chicken and the height should be adjusted at any time.
(5) The influence of drinking water devices. Using a nipple drinker can save 2~3g of feed per day compared with the sink. When the sink is used (water supply by long flowing water), the water depth in the tank is 1cm to 2cm, which saves the feed. Therefore, the water level in the sink should not be too high. High, especially when feeding dry powder, the feed on the chicken's mouth will be wasted as water flows out.
(6) Adjust the feeding method and change the feeding method. Feeding too much feed at one time is the main cause of feed wastage. Feeding should follow the principle of less feeding, regular ration, feeding in different times, and no material left in the trough after feeding. One feeding amount should not exceed 1/3 of the trough depth. The flattening is cage culture. The caged chicken has less activity than the flat chickens. It needs less maintenance and eats less. Since the feeding trough is outside the cage, it is not easy for the chicken to trample the feed when it is eaten.
(7) Grasp the amount of food. Different breeds and different uses of chickens, using different feeding methods, that is, free or restricted feeding; different age groups of chickens, using different diets, and in accordance with body weight standards or egg production rate in time to adjust . Chickens are mostly free-feeding. Chickens and breeders are restricted from feeding during the rearing period. They are limited in quality or in limited quantities. Feed restriction can save about 10% in feed and prevent overweight in the body. Affect the future production of eggs.
(8) Rodent killing against wild birds. Wild birds and rodents not only consume feed and cause waste, but they also release heat and excrete feces. As a result, the local temperature of feeds increases, the humidity increases, and feed forms become moldy, and it can also spread diseases.
(9) Elimination of sick or low-quality chickens. If there are roosters in the flocks that consume more feed and increase production costs, they must be eliminated in time;
Diseased chickens unable to stand up, kicking their legs, covering their mouths and blinding their eyes, weed out particularly lean chickens and sick chickens before laying eggs, eliminating egg-producing chickens at the peak of egg production, and eliminating laid eggs during mid-production. Low rate chickens. Breeding farms for roosters should eliminate cockerels with poor semen quality and loss of breeding ability.
3 Improvement measures
Feed full price feeds; Reasonably control the temperature of the house, the temperature in the house cannot be lower than 12°C; Carefully store and store feed; Strengthen feeding and management, Reduce stress factors, Save feed, Increase remuneration, Increase the economic efficiency of chicken farm .